The mode of offering prayer is that the believer should, in the state of ablution, stand upright facing the Qiblahh with a gap of four toes between his feet and express intention (in the heart and by the tongue as well) for whichever prayer he has to offer. He should raise his hands upto the ears in such a way that the palms face the Qiblahh and that the fingers remain in their normal condition (neither separated nor close together) and then bring them down after the thumbs have touched the lobes, while saying Takbeer-e-Tahreema i.e. Al-Laahu Akbar (Allah is the Most Great) and put them below his navel. The right hand should be placed on the wrist of the left hand with the thumb and the little finger encircling the wrist and the remaining three fingers resting on it and then recite Sanaa, Ta'awuz, Tasmiyah and Al-Hamd Shareef (Surah Faateha) followed by any Surah or three verses or a verse which is equal in length to three small verses. Say "Aameen" at the end of Surah Faateha in soft voice.
Now he should perform Rukoo saying "Al-Laahu Akbar" (method): bow down and grasp the knees with the fingers well-spread thereon (neither all fingers inclusive of the thumb are joined-up nor all fingers, putting the thumb aside, are one-sided). The head should be at level with the back, neither low nor high.
In this posture, he should recite "Subhaana Rabbi-yal Azeem"(Glory be to my Nourisher, the Most Great) at least thrice and then stand erect while saying "Sami Allahu-liman Hamida"(Allah has listened to him who has praised Him). Also say "Rabbanaa Lakal-Hamd"(O' our Sustainer! All praise is due to You alone) if offering the prayer by himself.
And then observe Sajdah saying "Al-Laahu Akbar" (method):first the knees should be placed on the ground then the hands and thereafter the head be placed between the hands. The bone of the nose should touch the ground and the forehead be placed firmly. The arms should be off the sides, the belly aloof from the thighs and the thighs apart from the calves. His feet should firmly rest on the insides of all the toes on the ground facing the Qiblahh and palms of the hands should rest on the ground with the fingers pointing towards the Qiblahh.
In this state, he should recite "Subhanaa Rabbi-yal 'Aalaa" (Glory be to my Nourisher, the Most High) at least three times and then raise his head while saying "Allah-o-Akbar" followed by the hands and then sit upright with his left foot under him and the right foot standing (resting on the insides of the toes, facing the Qiblah). He should put his palms on the thighs near the knees (fingers pointing towards the Qiblah and then do second Sajdah saying "Allah-o-Akbar" on the style of the first one. After performing the second Sajdah, he should rise placing his hands on the knees (stressing on the tiptoes) and stand erect.
Now in this second Rakah, he should recite Surah Fateha preceded by Tasmiyah and followed by any Surah as he had done in the first Rakah. Thereafter, he should observe Rukoo and Sujood like those of the previous ones and sit with his left foot under him for Qa'adah in which he should recite complete Attahyaat (Tashah-hud) without omitting or adding any word and on reaching the word "Laa" he should raise his index finger (joining the middle finger with the thumb to make a circle with the little and ring fingers bent towards the palm) and lower it on uttering "Ilia" and then let all the fingers rest straight like that of the left hand.
If he has to offer more Rakahs, he should stand up and complete the remaining Rakah(s) like those of the preceding ones. In case of Fard prayer, Surah Faatehah (Al-Hamd Sharif) should not be followed by any other Surah.
Now, in the next Qa'adah (Qa'ada-e-Akheera), he should recite Durood Shareef (invocation of Allah's blessings on the Holy Prophet) after having recited Tashah-hud and then make "Maasoorah Du'aa"(authentic supplication) for example:"Allaa-humma Innee Zalamtu Nafsee Zulman Kaseeran wa Innahu Laa Yaghfiruz Zunooba Illaa Anta Faghfirlee Maghfiratam Min 'Indika warhamnee Innaka Antal Ghafoorur Raheem" (O' Allah! I have greatly oppressed my soul and that there is no forgiver except You. Therefore, You forgive my sins with Your particular blessing and have mercy on me. Undoubtedly, You are the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful).
This Du'aa was taught to Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him) by the Holy Prophet (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him). Or recite this: "Allaa-humma Rabbanaa Aatinaa fid-Dunyaa Hasanah, wa fil-Aakhirate Hasanah wa Qinaa 'Azaaban-Naar" ( O' Allah! Grant us good in this world and the next world and protect us from the torment of Hell). And then say "As-Salaamu Alaikum-wa-Rahmatul Laah" (peace be on you and the mercy of Allah) turning the face towards the right side and then towards the left.
This mode of saying prayer is meant for Imaam and individual (he who offers prayer alone) as well. However, a Muqtadi (follower) should not recite Surah Faatehah and any other Surah while following Imaam in Jama'at.
After the Fard prayer is over, the Imaam should turn himself either to the right side or to the left (right side is desirable) and even towards his Muqtadees (followers) if no Muqtadi is busy in prayer, for making Du'aa. An individual can make Du'aa at the place where he offered prayer. Imaam should not make lengthy but brief Du'aa after Zuhr, Maghrib and 'Ishaa prayers and offer Sunnat prayers as it is Makrooh (odious) to delay the offering of Sunnat prayer. One should change the place to offer Sunnat prayer.
Imaam can make lengthy Du'aa after Fajr and Asr prayers, but he must care about his Muqtadis.